Who dated Eirene?

Ptolemy VIII Physcon dated Eirene from ? to ?

Eirene

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Eirene war eine Konkubine des ägyptischen Königs Ptolemaios VIII. Nachdem er im Sommer 145 v. Chr. die Herrschaft übernommen hatte, ließ er laut Diodor die Kyrenaier hinrichten, die ihn auf seiner Rückkehr nach Ägypten begleitet hatten, weil sie sich freimütig über Eirene geäußert hätten. Nicht historisch ist der Bericht des jüdischen Historikers Flavius Josephus über angebliche Mordabsichten des Ptolemaios VIII. gegen die jüdische Bevölkerung Alexandrias. Diese habe der König laut Josephus von trunkenen Elefanten zertrampeln lassen wollen, weil jüdische Generäle seine Schwester Kleopatra II. bei deren Widerstand gegen seine Rückkehr unterstützt hätten. Die Elefanten seien aber wie durch ein Wunder nicht auf ihre Opfer, sondern auf die eigenen Leute losgegangen und Eirene habe den König daraufhin zur Aufgabe seines mörderischen Vorhabens bewegen können. Manche Historiker halten Eirene für die Mutter des Ptolemaios Apion.

 
 

Ptolemy VIII Physcon

Ptolemy VIII Physcon

Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Tryphon (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης Τρύφων, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs Tryphon "Ptolemy the Benefactor, the luxurious"; c. 184 BC – 28 June 116 BC), nicknamed Physcon (Φύσκων "Fatty"), was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. He was the younger son of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Cleopatra I Syra. His reign was characterised by fierce political and military conflict with his older brother Ptolemy VI Philometor and his sister Cleopatra II.

Ptolemy VIII was originally made co-ruler with his older siblings in the run-up to the Sixth Syrian War. In the course of that war, Ptolemy VI was captured and Ptolemy VIII became sole king of Egypt. When the war ended and Ptolemy VI was restored to the throne in 168 BC, the two brothers continued to quarrel. In 164 BC Ptolemy VIII drove out his brother and became sole king of the Ptolemaic empire, but he was expelled in turn in 163 BC. As a result of Roman intervention, Ptolemy VIII was awarded control of Cyrenaica. From there he repeatedly tried to capture Cyprus, which had also been promised to him by the Romans, from his brother.

After Ptolemy VI's death in 145 BC, Ptolemy VIII returned to Egypt as co-ruler with his sister. His cruel treatment of opposition and his decision to marry his niece Cleopatra III and promote her to the status of co-regent led to a civil war from 132 to 126 BC, in which Cleopatra II controlled Alexandria and enjoyed the support of the Greek population of the country, while Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III controlled most of the rest of Egypt and were supported by the native Egyptians. During this war, native Egyptians were promoted to the highest echelons of the Ptolemaic government for the first time. Ptolemy was victorious and ruled alongside Cleopatra II and Cleopatra III until his death in 116 BC.

The ancient Greek sources on Ptolemy VIII are extremely hostile, characterising him as cruel and mocking him as fat and degenerate, as part of a contrast with Ptolemy VI, whom they present extremely positively. The historian Günther Höbl calls him "one of the most brutal and at the same time one of the shrewdest politicians of the Hellenistic Age."

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